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The present mansuscript is a very exhaustive and comprehensive compilation well supported with evidence based updated information narrating the potential role and useful applications of several medicinal plant s and herbs in treating and combating important bacterial pathogens and various types of bacterial diseases. It systematically covers most of the salient beneficial antibacterial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. A special focus has also been given to various important phytoconstituents present in various herbs, their biological activities and pharmacological principles, mechanism of actions along with useful antibacterial effects with classical examples. Due emphasis has been made regarding current scientific approaches and advancements along with future perspectives of herbal remedies with a vision to counter the emerging problem of antimicrobial resistance by exploring rich heritage of medicinal herbs found in nature. The review will certainly help in promoting and popularizing medicinal plant s and herbs as potent alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. It will be highly useful for researchers, biologists, pharamacists, medical and veterinary professionals, drug and pharmaceutical industries, animal sector (livestock and poultry industry), medicinal practioners and the common man too. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials could also help obtain optimum production from animals apart from protecting health of both animals and humans. It can also take care of various public health concerns associated with food safety issues viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats which would altogether help in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals in a holistic way.

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Nucleic acid sequence of a gene is an important property as it carries the identity of an organism. Molecular methods are based on the detection of the nucleic acid sequence of a gene specific to an organism. In probe-based identification, the organism’s single stranded DNA or RNA would bind to a complementary sequence and form hybrid which is double stranded. Identification of specific organisms can be done from the clinical specimen, culture, formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues ( Hong, 2006 ). The use of rRNAs is essential for probe-based detection of species as its nucleotide sequence is well conserved within a species and varies between species. Therefore, it is used as a target for species identification. Sequencing the amplified regions of Internal Transcriber Spacer regions (ITS) of the rRNA gene for Candida gained success in species identification ( White et al ., 1990 ). The early discoveries were in C. dubliniensis ( Sullivan et al ., 1995 ), C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis ( Tavanti et al ., 2005 ) using PCR methods. In Denmark, differentiation between C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was performed using a newly described RFLP method using SADH (secondary dehydrogenase-encoding gene), 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and ITS1-ITS2 regions ( Mirhendi et al ., 2010 ). In another study, molecular identification using ITS1-ITS4 fungal primers were able to identify C. orthopsilosis which was previously identified as C. parapsilosis with API 20C test kit ( Yong et al ., 2006 ). Very recently, a rapid real-time PCR method was also developed to distinguish C. metapsilosis , C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis . Different melting curve used was able to identify the three species mentioned above. Hays et al . (2011) and Gomez-Lopez et al . (2010) reported that a strain which was identified as C. kefyr with biochemical test method was discovered to be C. sphaerica by ITS sequencing. In another report, strains of C. haemulonii was mis-identified as C. sake , Pichia ohmeri and other Candida spp. by biochemical test kits ( Ruan et al ., 2009 ). However, molecular methods revealed their species identity. A multiplex PCR method used in another study was able to differentiate C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis which are phenotypically identical to C. glabrata ( Romeo et al ., 2009 ).

Biomed steroids canada

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