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In conclusion, patients with diabetes were at a higher risk of having fractures, VTEs, and hospitalizations for sepsis with using short-term oral corticosteroids. Using preventable measures have proven to provide better outcomes when used concomitantly with oral corticosteroids. A limitation of this study is the sensitivity of ICD-9-CM codes when comparing T1DM & T2DM. Another limitation is the inability to distinguish other illnesses at doctor visits. A strength of this study is the use of self-controlled case series, which allowed you to follow each individual. More trials should be conducted on preventative measures with corticosteroid use.
Corticosteroids are used by researchers to immunosuppress birds. The chick embryo model was used to evaluate the detrimental effects of corticosteroids on lymphocyte proliferation by injecting the chickens with ACTH. In these models, the 3 week old chickens showed a leukopenia, mostly due to a lymphopenia (1 hour post injection); after that they showed a leukocytosis due to heterophilia at 4 and 12 hours post injection. The increase of heterophils and decrease of lymphocytes caused an overall suppression of antibody production. The lymphocytes remained in the lymphoid organs. In addition to these changes exogenous glucorticosteroids decrease inducible cellular cytoxiticy; lymphoproliferation, T- Cell immunity, interleukin-2 and gamma – interferon production.