This paper examines the nature and significance of punk fashion in East Germany c1978 – 83, and the associated use of symbolism. It demonstrates that provocative clothing was not merely a means through which to express discontentment with and rebellion against the state but also facilitated the construction of individual identity outside personal, physical and creative restrictions in the GDR. The prevalence of the anarchy symbol in the East German scene reflects its political non-alignment and demonstrates how punk provided a sense of freedom, escape and fun, despite the considerable personal risks involved.
This is a list of notable punk rock bands (numbers 0–9 and letters A through K). The bands listed have played some type of punk music at some point in their career, although they may have also played other styles. Bands who played in a style that influenced early punk rock—such as garage rock and protopunk —but never played punk rock themselves, should not be on this list. Bands who created a new genre that was influenced by (but is not a subgenre of) punk rock—such as alternative rock , crossover thrash , metalcore , new wave , and post-punk —but never played punk rock, should not be listed either.
Many composers emigrated to the United States when the Nazi Party came to power, including Schoenberg, Hindemith, and Erich Korngold . During this period, the Nazi Party embarked on a campaign to rid Germany of so-called degenerate art , which became a catch-all phrase that included music with any link to Jews, Communists, jazz, and anything else thought to be dangerous. Some figures such as Karl Amadeus Hartmann remained defiantly in Germany during the years of Nazi dominance, continually watchful of how their output might be interpreted by the authorities.