The International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference (IPNC), occurring every two years, is a forum for the presentation of cutting-edge research on all aspects of the genus Neisseria . This includes immunology, vaccinology, and physiology and metabolism of N. meningitidis , N. gonorrhoeae and the commensal species. The first IPNC took place in 1978, and the most recent one was in September 2016. Normally, the location of the conference switches between North America and Europe, but it took place in Australia for the first time in 2006, where the venue was located in Cairns .
CAMP factor is a diffusible, heat-stable protein produced by group B streptococci. This is a synergistic test between Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae . S. agalactiae produces CAMP factor. S. aureus produces sphingomyelin C, which binds to red blood cell membranes. The two bacteria are streaked at 90 o angles of one another. They do NOT touch. The CAMP factor produced by S. agalactiae enhances the beta-hemolysis of S. aureus by binding to already damaged red blood cells. As a result, an arrow of beta-hemolysis is produced between the two streaks. The test is presumptive for S. agalactiae that produces CAMP factor.
Gevo is a renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels startup, headquartered in Englewood, Colorado and founded in 2005. It is developing biobased alternatives to petroleum-based products using a combination of synthetic biology and chemistry. Using technology developed at Caltech, Gevo has been working on engineering enzymes that can convert waste and other cellulosic feedstocks into alternative fuels like butanol, and is now moving to begin its first joint venture to produce isobutanol, a versatile platform chemical for the liquid fuels and petrochemicals markets. Gevo’s goal is to deploy their isobutanol technology by using a “capital light” business model, which involves retrofitting existing ethanol manufacturing plants.